But you’re still going to have cytosine and guanine pairing. And then they’re gonna have another tRNA that might attach to amino acid 2, which I will do in purple, and that just happens to coincide with, so it can complement right over here, so it attaches in the right place, so it’s A A U right over here, this tRNA. Same reason why we call the DNA nucleic acid. As a cell divides, the two new cells would want to have the same genetic material. So let me copy and paste, so if I take that side right over there, so let me copy and then paste it. And so let’s see what that actually looks like. And one of the functions that RNA plays is to be that messenger, that messenger between a certain section of DNA and kind of what goes on outside of the nucleus, so that that can be translated into an actual protein.
So protein is essentially a bunch, a sequence of these amino acids put together. And so three bases together, so these bases right over here, these I guess you could say this three letter word or this three letter sequence, that’s called a codon. So for example this could be, this whole thing could be a strand of DNA, but this part right over, let’s say in orange I’ll do it, this part in orange right over here could be one gene, it might define information for one gene, it could define a protein, this section right over here could be used to define another gene. The DNA molecule can be tens of millions of base pairs long. But now we’re not just trying to duplicate the DNA molecule, we’re actually trying to create a corresponding mRNA molecule. And we’re gonna focus on a conceptual level, I’m not gonna go into all of the, I guess you could say biochemical details.
So what role does this play as we are trying to express the information in this DNA?
DNA replication and RNA transcription and translation
And as we’ll see, the workshete that a gene is expressed, the way we get from the information for that section of DNA into a protein which is really how it’s expressed, is through a related molecule to DNA, and that is RNA.
Thymine pairs with adenine Let me do that a little bit neater.
And then cytosine pairs with guanine. And genes could be anywhere from several thousand base pairs long, all the way up into the millions. But now we’re not just trying to duplicate the DNA molecule, we’re actually trying to create a corresponding mRNA molecule. This is what’s kind of doing syntuesis work of life.
So for answerw RNA and in this case the mRNA that’s going to leave the nucleus A is going to pair with U, U for uracil, so uracil, that’s the base we’re talking about, let me write it down, uracil. So how does DNA replicate? And this process is called replication.
So RNA stands for ribonucleic acid.
Dna rna protein synthesis homework #2 dna replication – Google Docs
Impact of mutations on translation into amino acids. So let me copy and paste, so if I take that side right over there, so let me copy and aswers paste it. And what we wanna do in this video is get a better appreciation for why it is suitable, and the mechanism by which it is the molecular basis for heredity. So you have 64 possible codons.
DNA replication and RNA transcription and translation (video) | Khan Academy
And so it’s very similar except for when we’re talking about RNA, adenine, instead of pairing with thymine, is now going to pair with uracil. Thymine is still going to pair with adenine, just like that. And they also, you might have more than one codon coding for the same amino acid. Really just give you the conceptual idea of what happens.
Now how does that happen? And how many possible codons do you have? And so let me copy and then let me paste. And so when you do that, now these two characters can detach, and now you have a single strand of RNA and in this case messenger RNA, that has all the information on that section of DNA.
As a cell divides, the two new cells would want to have the same genetic material.
It’s a new tool I’m using, so let me make sure I’m doing it right. Well the DNA, especially if we’re talking about cells with nucleii, the DNA sits there but that information has to for the most part get outside of the nucleus in order to be expressed. So this might be part of a gene Actually whoops, let me make sure I’m using the right tool.
So using the original ansewrs hand side, once again the T is paired with the A, let me do that in adenine’s color. Obviously you know if you eat an animal it’s going to be made up of fat and sugars and proteins, but the proteins are the things that actually do a lot of the whether they’re enzymes, whether they’re structural, the muscle is formed from proteins, these are the things, homewkrk I’m just drawing a small segment of them, they could be thousands or more of these amino acids long.
Actually let me write this down. At least for that section of, at least for that gene. And so you can imagine if you were to split these, these things you could call them two sides of the ladder, that either side could be used to construct the other side.
And so you might remember that DNA is deoxyribonucleic acid, so the sugar backbone in RNA is a very similar molecule, well now it’s got its oxy, it’s not deoxyribonucleic acid, it’s ribonucleic acid.
So let me select that. And so transcription is a very similar conceputal idea, where we’re now going to construct a strand of RNA wogksheet specifically mRNA ’cause it’s going to take that information outside of the nucleus.